AHA/ACCF secondary prevention and risk reduction therapy for patients with coronary and other atherosclerotic vascular disease: 2011 update: A guideline from the American Heart Association and American College of Cardiology Foundation Public Deposited

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  • Smith, Sidney C., Jr.
    • Affiliation: School of Medicine, Department of Medicine
  • Benjamin, Emelia J.
  • Bonow, Robert O.
  • Braun, Lynne T.
  • Creager, Mark A.
  • Franklin, Barry A.
  • Gibbons, Raymond J.
  • Grundy, Scott M.
  • Hiratzka, Loren F.
  • Jones, Daniel W.
  • Lloyd-Jones, Donald M.
  • Minissian, Margo
  • Mosca, Lori
  • Peterson, Eric D.
  • Sacco, Ralph L.
  • Spertus, John
  • Stein, James H.
  • Taubert, Kathryn A.
  • "Since the 2006 update of the American Heart Association (AHA)/American College of Cardiology Foundation (ACCF) guidelines on secondary prevention,1 important evidence from clinical trials has emerged that further supports and broadens the merits of intensive risk-reduction therapies for patients with established coronary and other atherosclerotic vascular disease, including peripheral artery disease, atherosclerotic aortic disease, and carotid artery disease. In reviewing this evidence and its clinical impact, the writing group believed it would be more appropriate to expand the title of this guideline to “Secondary Prevention and Risk Reduction Therapy for Patients With Coronary and Other Atherosclerotic Vascular Disease.” Indeed, the growing body of evidence confirms that in patients with atherosclerotic vascular disease, comprehensive risk factor management reduces risk as assessed by a variety of outcomes, including improved survival, reduced recurrent events, the need for revascularization procedures, and improved quality of life. It is important not only that the healthcare provider implement these recommendations in appropriate patients but also that healthcare systems support this implementation to maximize the benefit to the patient. Compelling evidence-based results from recent clinical trials and revised practice guidelines provide the impetus for this update of the 2006 recommendations with evidence-based results2–165 (Table 1). Classification of recommendations and level of evidence are expressed in ACCF/AHA format, as detailed in Table 2. Recommendations made herein are largely based on major practice guidelines from the National Institutes of Health and updated ACCF/AHA practice guidelines, as well as on results from recent clinical trials. Thus, the development of the present guideline involved a process of partial adaptation of other guideline statements and reports and supplemental literature searches. The recommendations listed in this document are, whenever possible, evidence based. Writing group members performed these relevant supplemental literature searches with key search phrases including but not limited to tobacco/smoking/smoking cessation; blood pressure control/hypertension; cholesterol/hypercholesterolemia/lipids/lipoproteins/dyslipidemia; physical activity/exercise/exercise training; weight management/overweight/obesity; type 2 diabetes mellitus management; antiplatelet agents/anticoagulants; renin/angiotensin/aldosterone system blockers; β-blockers; influenza vaccination; clinical depression/depression screening; and cardiac/cardiovascular rehabilitation. Additional searches cross-referenced these topics with the subtopics of clinical trials, secondary prevention, atherosclerosis, and coronary/cerebral/peripheral artery disease. These searches were limited to studies, reviews, and other evidence conducted in human subjects and published in English. In addition, the writing group reviewed documents related to the subject matter previously published by the AHA, the ACCF, and the National Institutes of Health."
Date of publication
Related resource URL
Resource type
  • Journal Item
Rights statement
  • In Copyright
Journal title
  • Circulation
Journal volume
  • 124
Journal issue
  • 22
Page start
  • 2458
Page end
  • 2473
  • English
  • Postprint
  • ‎0009-7322

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