Low Latency Displays for Augmented Reality Public Deposited

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Last Modified
  • March 19, 2019
Creator
  • Lincoln, Peter
    • Affiliation: College of Arts and Sciences, Department of Computer Science
Abstract
  • The primary goal for Augmented Reality (AR) is bringing the real and virtual together into a common space. Maintaining this illusion, however, requires preserving spatially and temporally consistent registration despite changes in user or object pose. The greatest source of registration error is latency—the delay between when something moves and the display changes in response—which breaks temporal consistency. Furthermore, the real world varies greatly in brightness; ranging from bright sunlight to deep shadows. Thus, a compelling AR system must also support High-Dynamic Range (HDR) to maintain its virtual objects’ appearance both spatially and temporally consistent with the real world. This dissertation presents new methods, implementations, results (both visual and performance), and future steps for low latency displays, primarily in the context of Optical See-through Augmented Reality (OST-AR) Head-Mounted Displays, focusing on temporal consistency in registration, HDR color support, and spatial and temporal consistency in brightness: 1. For registration temporal consistency, the primary insight is breaking the conventional display paradigm: computers render imagery, frame by frame, and then transmit it to the display for emission. Instead, the display must also contribute towards rendering by performing a post-rendering, post-transmission warp of the computer-supplied imagery in the display hardware. By compensating in the display for system latency by using the latest tracking information, much of the latency can be short-circuited. Furthermore, the low latency display must support ultra-high frequency (multiple kHz) refreshing to minimize pose displacement between updates. 2. For HDR color support, the primary insight is developing new display modulation techniques. DMDs, a type of ultra-high frequency display, emit binary output, which require modulation to produce multiple brightness levels. Conventional modulation breaks low latency guarantees, and modulation of bright LEDs illuminators at frequencies to support kHz-order HDR exceeds their capabilities. Thus one must directly synthesize the necessary variation in brightness. 3. For spatial and temporal brightness consistency, the primary insight is integrating HDR light sensors into the display hardware: the same processes which both compensate for latency and generate HDR output can also modify it in response to the spatially sensed brightness of the real world.
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Rights statement
  • In Copyright
Advisor
  • Lastra, Anselmo
  • Singh, Montek
  • Welch, Gregory Francis
  • Whitted, Turner
  • Fuchs, Henry
  • Bimber, Oliver
  • Thomas, Bruce
Degree
  • Doctor of Philosophy
Degree granting institution
  • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Graduate School
Graduation year
  • 2017
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