Affiliation: Gillings School of Global Public Health, Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering
Inadequate access to water and sanitation has been characterized as a challenge to developing infrastructure and public health in Jakarta, Indonesia. Access to piped-water network has only increased from 10% to 48% between 1975 to 2015. Sewer coverage, which is only available to 2% of population, has been mostly stagnant since 1989. Drawing on interview, documentation approaches and the application of a multilevel perspective, we documented factors that contributed to water and sanitation from 1945 to 2015. We found that there has been no substantial change in piped-water and sewer coverage in Jakarta. This is because regime actors have not changed their cognitive routines, formal rules, or norms despite political and economic changes that occurred as Indonesia moved from a centralized to decentralized system. This case study found that decentralization does not improve piped-water and sewer performance. Future studies should address the multi-regime dynamics between piped and non-piped systems.