Racial Choices: The Emergence of the Haliwa-Saponi Indian Tribe, 1835-1971 Public Deposited

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  • March 19, 2019
  • Richardson, Marvin
    • Affiliation: College of Arts and Sciences, Department of History
  • MARVIN M. RICHARDSON: Racial Choices: The Emergence of the Haliwa-Saponi Indian Tribe, 1835-1971 (Under the direction of Malinda Maynor Lowery) This dissertation explores how the Native American group now known as the Haliwa-Saponi Indian Tribe of North Carolina emerged and formed itself into an American Indian nation between 1835 and 1971 after enduring social and legal systems that denied their separate racial and ethnic identity as Indians by enforcing a black-white binary, limited their civic participation and rights, and dispossessed them from their lands. I use the term “Meadows Indians” to describe the Indians of the geographical area traditionally called the Meadows, which recalls their homeland and their distinct community before they adopted the name Haliwa-Saponi. In this work I use the term “racial choices” to signal when Meadows Indians have shaped their society in dialogue with the racial hierarchy; some chose to distance themselves from an Indian identity and pursue opportunities available to African Americans or whites, while others attempted to circumvent the hierarchy and carve out a separate sphere for themselves as a distinct Indian people. By using “racial choices” Haliwa-Saponi Indians accepted or rejected their sense of themselves as a distinct people or “peoplehood.” Some Meadows Indians maintained kinship ties, protected their traditional homelands, and expressed a distinct Native culture to uphold the values of peoplehood, while others pursued other economic, social, and political opportunities and rejected peoplehood.
Date of publication
Resource type
Rights statement
  • In Copyright
  • Brundage, W. Fitzhugh
  • Cobb, Daniel
  • Maynor Lowery, Malinda
  • Watson, Harry L.
  • Holland, Dorothy
  • Doctor of Philosophy
Degree granting institution
  • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Graduate School
Graduation year
  • 2016

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