Scheduling and locking in multiprocessor real-time operating systems Public Deposited

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  • March 21, 2019
  • Brandenburg, Björn B.
    • Affiliation: College of Arts and Sciences, Department of Computer Science
  • With the widespread adoption of multicore architectures, multiprocessors are now a standard deployment platform for (soft) real-time applications. This dissertation addresses two questions fundamental to the design of multicore-ready real-time operating systems: (1) Which scheduling policies offer the greatest flexibility in satisfying temporal constraints; and (2) which locking algorithms should be used to avoid unpredictable delays? With regard to Question 1, LITMUSRT, a real-time extension of the Linux kernel, is presented and its design is discussed in detail. Notably, LITMUSRT implements link-based scheduling, a novel approach to controlling blocking due to non-preemptive sections. Each implemented scheduler (22 configurations in total) is evaluated under consideration of overheads on a 24-core Intel Xeon platform. The experiments show that partitioned earliest-deadline first (EDF) scheduling is generally preferable in a hard real-time setting, whereas global and clustered EDF scheduling are effective in a soft real-time setting. With regard to Question 2, real-time locking protocols are required to ensure that the maximum delay due to priority inversion can be bounded a priori. Several spinlock- and semaphore-based multiprocessor real-time locking protocols for mutual exclusion (mutex), reader-writer (RW) exclusion, and k-exclusion are proposed and analyzed. A new category of RW locks suited to worst-case analysis, termed phase-fair locks, is proposed and three efficient phase-fair spinlock implementations are provided (one with few atomic operations, one with low space requirements, and one with constant RMR complexity). Maximum priority-inversion blocking is proposed as a natural complexity measure for semaphore protocols. It is shown that there are two classes of schedulability analysis, namely suspension-oblivious and suspension-aware analysis, that yield two different lower bounds on blocking. Five asymptotically optimal locking protocols are designed and analyzed: a family of mutex, RW, and k-exclusion protocols for global, partitioned, and clustered scheduling that are asymptotically optimal in the suspension-oblivious case, and a mutex protocol for partitioned scheduling that is asymptotically optimal in the suspension-aware case. A LITMUSRT-based empirical evaluation is presented that shows these protocols to be practical.
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  • In Copyright
  • "... in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the Department of Computer Science."
  • Anderson, James H.
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  • Chapel Hill, NC
  • Open access

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