The Implementation and Effectiveness of Policy Interventions for School Bullying Public Deposited

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  • March 19, 2019
  • Hall, William
    • Affiliation: School of Social Work
  • Bullying threatens the well-being and school success of students. Since the 1990s, the creation of policies as a strategy to combat bullying has increased considerably. The three studies comprising this dissertation examined the implementation and effectiveness of policy interventions for bullying. The first paper was a systematic review of studies examining the effectiveness of policy interventions for bullying. Eleven databases were searched, and 21 studies were reviewed. More educators perceived that policies were effective rather than ineffective. Policies may be more effective for direct bullying and less effective for indirect bullying. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer students in schools with policies that enumerated protections based on sexual orientation and gender identity experienced less harassment and more frequent and effective intervention by school personnel. Findings were mixed regarding associations between anti-bullying policy presence and bullying outcomes. The second and third papers focused on the implementation of the statewide anti-bullying law in North Carolina. These studies used data collected from educators in K-12 public schools. The second paper examined differences in the fidelity of implementation of the law across eight protected social classes enumerated in the law: race, national origin, gender, socioeconomic status, sexual orientation, gender identity, appearance, and disability. Local anti-bullying policies more often included race as a protected class and infrequently included sexual orientation and gender identity. More educators had been trained on bullying based on race than any other social class. Students were more often informed that bullying based on race was prohibited and were least often informed about prohibitions regarding sexual orientation and gender identity. Reporting, investigating, and remediating bullying behavior was highest for bullying based on race and then disability and was lowest for bullying based on sexual orientation and gender identity. The third paper examined the relationships between school contextual factors and two outcomes: fidelity of implementation of the law and teacher protection of students. Implementation fidelity was higher in high schools than elementary schools. The number of students in the school and the prevalence of student suspensions were inversely related to implementation fidelity. Higher levels of teacher protection were reported in elementary schools.
Date of publication
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Rights statement
  • In Copyright
  • Fraser, Mark W.
  • Chapman, Mimi
  • Rounds, Kathleen
  • Bowen, Natasha
  • Fedders, Barbara
  • Doctor of Philosophy
Degree granting institution
  • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Graduate School
Graduation year
  • 2015
Place of publication
  • Chapel Hill, NC
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