The relationships between changes in weight status, leptin, cortisol, growth hormone and insulin resistance in youth Public Deposited

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  • March 22, 2019
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  • Ondrak, Kristin Sutika
    • Affiliation: School of Medicine, Department of Allied Health Sciences, Curriculum in Human Movement Science
Abstract
  • PURPOSE: The purpose of this investigation was to examine the relationships between changes in weight status that occur over two years and changes in leptin, cortisol, human growth hormone (hGH), and insulin resistance in youth. Additionally, we examined the interrelationships among changes in leptin, cortisol and hGH as well as their relation to changes in insulin. PARTICIPANTS: Data were collected at baseline and two years later for 120 youth purposefully selected from a larger study (CHIC III, Cohort 5, J.S. Harrell, P.I.), to represent four groups: NO (normal weight, >5th and <85th BMI percentile, at baseline and overweight, [greater than or equal to] 85th BMI percentile, at follow-up), ON (overweight to normal weight), NN, or OO (normal weight or overweight at both time points, respectively). METHODS: Height and body mass were measured and used to determine BMI percentile. Fasting insulin, leptin, cortisol and hGH were analyzed from plasma via radioimmunoassay. Insulin resistance was estimated via the homeostatic model (HOMA-IR). RESULTS: Two-year changes in BMI percentile were related to: change in HOMA-IR (r=0.26) and changes in leptin (r=0.39), cortisol (r=-0.25) and hGH (r=0.24) (p<0.05). Youth in the NO group had a greater percent change in HOMA-IR (50%) than those in the ON group (-8%) (p<0.05). Additionally, the NO group had greater increases in leptin and greater decreases in cortisol compared to the ON group (p<0.05); likewise there was an inverse relationship between changes in leptin and cortisol (r=-0.23, p<0.05). No group differences for change in hGH were evident. Changes in leptin were associated with changes in insulin (r=0.29, p<0.05). In the regression model for change in insulin, change in leptin accounted for the greatest amount of variance (R2 = 0.09, p<0.05), followed by change in BMI percentile (R2 = 0.04, p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Change in BMI percentile was positively associated with changes in HOMA-IR, leptin and hGH, and negatively related to changes in cortisol. Moving from normal weight to overweight was associated with greater changes in HOMAIR, leptin and cortisol than moving from overweight to normal weight. These results suggest that natural changes in weight status are related to alterations in several hormones in youth.
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  • McMurray, Robert G.
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