Examining the reciprocal relationship between bus rapid transit and the built environment in Latin America Public Deposited

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Last Modified
  • March 20, 2019
Creator
  • Vergel-Tovar, C.
    • Affiliation: College of Arts and Sciences, Department of City and Regional Planning
Abstract
  • There has been a rapid growth of Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) systems in the world over the last two decades with more than 200 cities currently with this type of transportation system. Empirical evidence of BRT’s effects on land use and development is still limited and its relationship with affordable housing is largely unexplored. Likewise, very few studies have examined the influence of the built environment on BRT ridership. The first aim of this dissertation examines land use and development impacts of BRT in Bogota and Quito using a multimethod approach. The quantitative approach estimates the average treatment effect of BRT on built-up area and land uses with a difference-in-difference research design. The analysis runs propensity score weighted regression models with treatment and control land parcels. In Bogota, parcels with BRT had a minimum effect on built-up area changes and mixed results regarding changes of residential and commercial uses in relation to control corridors. In Quito mixed results were found, with similarly positive and negative effects of the BRT on new developments in relation to the control corridor. The qualitative approach examined semi-structured interviews with key participants finding five themes explaining the mixed results of development impacts of BRT: coordination, expertise, development, management and equity issues. The second aim of this dissertation examines whether population density and built environment attributes explain ridership in a sample of 120 BRT stations in seven cities in Latin America. Results found no association between population density and BRT ridership but adding the built environment attributes around stations increased the explanatory power of the model. Two built environment factors as a result of factor analysis suggest high-rise multifamily developments, mixed uses and presence of facilities are positively associated with BRT ridership. Six BRT station typologies as a result of cluster analysis suggest transit oriented development features like non-motorized transport infrastructure play an important role explaining ridership. Based on this work, this dissertation recommends the implementation of BRT as urban development projects integrating land use and transportation planning with an equity perspective, and an assessment of built environment attributes around stations for predictions of BRT ridership.
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  • In Copyright
Advisor
  • Song, Yan
  • Rodriguez, Daniel
  • Lester, T. William
  • Quercia, Roberto
  • Irazábal, Clara
Degree
  • Doctor of Philosophy
Degree granting institution
  • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Graduate School
Graduation year
  • 2016
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