Synthesis and applications of titania nanotubes: drug delivery and ionomer composites Public Deposited

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  • March 22, 2019
  • Kulkarni, Harsha Prabhakar
    • Affiliation: College of Arts and Sciences, Department of Applied Physical Sciences, Materials Science Graduate Program
  • In this dissertation, the potential of a tubular form of titania (titanium dioxide) has been explored for two diverse applications, in the field of targeted drug delivery for medical applications and in the field of composite materials for structural applications. We introduce the tubular form of titania, a material well known for its catalytic properties. The tubes are synthesized by hydrothermal procedure and are nanometers in dimension, with an inside diameter of 5-6 nm, outside diameter of 10-12, and an aspect ratio of ~100:1 (l:d), structures both chemically and thermally stable. Biocompatible titania nanotubes with large catalytic surface area are used as vehicles for carrying Doxorubicin, an anticancer chemotherapeutic drug, to explore its potential in targeted drug delivery. Optical properties of Doxorubicin are used to study adsorption and release of the drug molecule from the nanotube surface. Pilot experiments show strong adsorption of 4 wt% of doxorubicin on the nanotube surface characterized by the quenching of its absorption centered at 490 nm. Quinone and protonated amino groups on the drug molecule, involved in protonation and deprotonation with the surface hydroxyls and molecular water on the nanotube surface, are responsible for adsorption. Doxorubicin adsorbed on the nanotube surface show pH specific release, with 40% release at a physiological pH of 7.4 as compared to 4% and 10% at pH values of 3.4 and 5.7 respectively under sink conditions. In vitro cytotoxicity experiments, used to characterize the anticancer potential of the nanotube-drug conjugate, shows comparable toxicity for the conjugates as the free drug. Nanotubes with strong adsorption of doxorubicin, large surface area, pH controlled release, and effective toxicity, demonstrate its potential as a vehicle for targeted drug delivery. If nanotube-drug conjugates with reversible bonds between them, and a pH controlled release in an aqueous solution are promising for medical applications, nanotube-polymer conjugates with nanotubes as reinforcing structures in a polymer matrix with improved mechanical properties are equally promising for structural applications. Nanotubes are used as reinforcing structures in Surlyn, a polyethylene-co-methacrylic acid polymer containing ions. When cooled from the melt, Surlyn shows strong aging effects on mechanical properties over periods of several days to months. Structures in the matrix of the polymer which form with time are responsible for these aging effects on mechanical properties. Aging at short times after cooling from the melt reveal subtle contributions from these structures not fully formed and mechanical properties not fully recovered. Nanotubes are used as reinforcing structures to improve the mechanical properties at short aging times, a property desired for high temperature applications demanding a quick recovery of mechanical properties. A unique Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) based Local Thermal Analysis (LTA) probe is used to study the mechanical properties of Surlyn and Nanotube-Surlyn composite. Nanotube-Surlyn composites show superior mechanical properties at both short and long aging times after cooling from the melt, as the structures in the matrix continue to form at long aging times.
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  • In Copyright
  • Wu, Yue
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  • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
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