Annexation and Water Utility Extensions in Wake County, NC: The Role of Race, Income, and Other Demographic Characteristics Public Deposited

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Last Modified
  • April 18, 2019
  • Clonch, Allison
    • Affiliation: College of Arts and Sciences, Department of City and Regional Planning
  • Racial segregation in the United States, formally ended some 65 years ago, still persists in many cities and towns through intentional and unintentional land use planning and policy. It has been demonstrated that low-income and Black neighborhoods are less likely to have access to municipal services through a phenomenon known as municipal underbounding. Many unincorporated communities lack basic amenities, such as water or sewer service, sidewalks, parks, or proper drainage systems, and most individuals living in these communities rely on unregulated private wells. The objective of this study is to determine the relationship between demographic characteristics of unincorporated communities and how annexations and water utility extensions are made over time. We created and utilized a novel database of residential parcels in Wake County, NC, from 2002 to 2018 and block group level demographic data. With this, we created logistic models to assess the relationship between community demographics and annexations and water utility extensions over time in Wake County, NC. In general, the models show that median age, race, and population density significantly affect the odds of both annexation and receiving water service.
Date of publication
Resource type
  • Spurlock, Danielle
  • Master of City and Regional Planning
Academic concentration
  • Land Use and Environmental Planning
Degree granting institution
  • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Graduation year
  • 2019
Deposit record
  • d420e5ad-dd3b-4fca-beaf-d633686d8d9e

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