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Cross-Coupling Reactions with Alkyl Electrophiles An overview of the application of alkyl electrophiles in cross-coupling reactions is presented, highlighting the importance of this reactivity and challenges associated therein. Recent advances in alkyl cross-coupling are discussed, from both a process development and mechanistic perspective, to describe the current state of the field. Advances in hybrid organometallic-radical reactivity are also considered, with particular focus on its application in alkyl cross-coupling and perspective on mechanistic analysis. II. Palladium-Catalyzed Ring-Forming Aromatic C-H Alkylation A palladium-catalyzed, intramolecular aromatic C-H alkylation with unactivated alkyl halides is described. This process is successful with both iodides and bromides, including those with β-hydrogen atoms present. It also tolerates both electron-rich and electron-poor aromatic rings, as well as heteroaromatic substrates. The mild, palladium-catalyzed approach displays compatibility with a diverse range of functional groups, including those which are base- or nucleophile-sensitive. A mechanistic investigation is also presented, suggesting the presence of radical intermediates. III. A Versatile, Palladium-Catalyzed Approach to Alkene-Alkyl Halide Coupling A method for the palladium-catalyzed coupling of alkyl halides with alkenes is presented. Reaction conditions determine whether the end product retains the alkyl halide moiety in an atom-transfer radical cyclization (ATRC) reaction, or if the alkene component is restored, affecting a formal Heck-type transformation. The manifold is capable of performing both transformations with unactivated alkyl bromides and a variety of terminal, di- and tri-substituted alkenes under argon atmosphere. It also enables formation of both 5- and 6-membered rings. A mechanistic investigation of this reaction is presented, which suggests the operation of a catalytic, hybrid organometallic-radical process. Spring 2017 2017 Chemistry Organic chemistry Catalysis, Cross-Coupling, Organometallic, Palladium eng Doctor of Philosophy Dissertation University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Graduate School Degree granting institution Chemistry Erik Alexanian Thesis advisor David Nicewicz Thesis advisor Jeffrey Aubé Thesis advisor Alexander Miller Thesis advisor Michel Gagné Thesis advisor text Alexander Venning Creator Department of Chemistry College of Arts and Sciences Palladium-Catalyzed Carbon-Carbon Bond-Forming Reactions with Unactivated Alkyl Electrophiles I. Cross-Coupling Reactions with Alkyl Electrophiles An overview of the application of alkyl electrophiles in cross-coupling reactions is presented, highlighting the importance of this reactivity and challenges associated therein. Recent advances in alkyl cross-coupling are discussed, from both a process development and mechanistic perspective, to describe the current state of the field. Advances in hybrid organometallic-radical reactivity are also considered, with particular focus on its application in alkyl cross-coupling and perspective on mechanistic analysis. II. Palladium-Catalyzed Ring-Forming Aromatic C-H Alkylation A palladium-catalyzed, intramolecular aromatic C-H alkylation with unactivated alkyl halides is described. This process is successful with both iodides and bromides, including those with β-hydrogen atoms present. It also tolerates both electron-rich and electron-poor aromatic rings, as well as heteroaromatic substrates. The mild, palladium-catalyzed approach displays compatibility with a diverse range of functional groups, including those which are base- or nucleophile-sensitive. A mechanistic investigation is also presented, suggesting the presence of radical intermediates. III. A Versatile, Palladium-Catalyzed Approach to Alkene-Alkyl Halide Coupling A method for the palladium-catalyzed coupling of alkyl halides with alkenes is presented. Reaction conditions determine whether the end product retains the alkyl halide moiety in an atom-transfer radical cyclization (ATRC) reaction, or if the alkene component is restored, affecting a formal Heck-type transformation. The manifold is capable of performing both transformations with unactivated alkyl bromides and a variety of terminal, di- and tri-substituted alkenes under argon atmosphere. It also enables formation of both 5- and 6-membered rings. A mechanistic investigation of this reaction is presented, which suggests the operation of a catalytic, hybrid organometallic-radical process. Spring 2017 2017 Chemistry Organic chemistry Catalysis, Cross-Coupling, Organometallic, Palladium eng Doctor of Philosophy Dissertation University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Graduate School Degree granting institution Chemistry Erik Alexanian Thesis advisor David Nicewicz Thesis advisor Jeffrey Aubé Thesis advisor Alexander Miller Thesis advisor Michel Gagné Thesis advisor text Alexander Venning Creator Department of Chemistry College of Arts and Sciences Palladium-Catalyzed Carbon-Carbon Bond-Forming Reactions with Unactivated Alkyl Electrophiles I. Cross-Coupling Reactions with Alkyl Electrophiles An overview of the application of alkyl electrophiles in cross-coupling reactions is presented, highlighting the importance of this reactivity and challenges associated therein. Recent advances in alkyl cross-coupling are discussed, from both a process development and mechanistic perspective, to describe the current state of the field. Advances in hybrid organometallic-radical reactivity are also considered, with particular focus on its application in alkyl cross-coupling and perspective on mechanistic analysis. II. Palladium-Catalyzed Ring-Forming Aromatic C-H Alkylation A palladium-catalyzed, intramolecular aromatic C-H alkylation with unactivated alkyl halides is described. This process is successful with both iodides and bromides, including those with β-hydrogen atoms present. It also tolerates both electron-rich and electron-poor aromatic rings, as well as heteroaromatic substrates. The mild, palladium-catalyzed approach displays compatibility with a diverse range of functional groups, including those which are base- or nucleophile-sensitive. A mechanistic investigation is also presented, suggesting the presence of radical intermediates. III. A Versatile, Palladium-Catalyzed Approach to Alkene-Alkyl Halide Coupling A method for the palladium-catalyzed coupling of alkyl halides with alkenes is presented. Reaction conditions determine whether the end product retains the alkyl halide moiety in an atom-transfer radical cyclization (ATRC) reaction, or if the alkene component is restored, affecting a formal Heck-type transformation. The manifold is capable of performing both transformations with unactivated alkyl bromides and a variety of terminal, di- and tri-substituted alkenes under argon atmosphere. It also enables formation of both 5- and 6-membered rings. A mechanistic investigation of this reaction is presented, which suggests the operation of a catalytic, hybrid organometallic-radical process. Spring 2017 2017 Chemistry Organic chemistry Catalysis, Cross-Coupling, Organometallic, Palladium eng Doctor of Philosophy Dissertation University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Graduate School Degree granting institution Chemistry Erik Alexanian Thesis advisor David Nicewicz Thesis advisor Jeffrey Aubé Thesis advisor Alexander Miller Thesis advisor Michel Gagné Thesis advisor text Alexander Venning Creator Department of Chemistry College of Arts and Sciences Palladium-Catalyzed Carbon-Carbon Bond-Forming Reactions with Unactivated Alkyl Electrophiles I. Cross-Coupling Reactions with Alkyl Electrophiles An overview of the application of alkyl electrophiles in cross-coupling reactions is presented, highlighting the importance of this reactivity and challenges associated therein. Recent advances in alkyl cross-coupling are discussed, from both a process development and mechanistic perspective, to describe the current state of the field. Advances in hybrid organometallic-radical reactivity are also considered, with particular focus on its application in alkyl cross-coupling and perspective on mechanistic analysis. II. Palladium-Catalyzed Ring-Forming Aromatic C-H Alkylation A palladium-catalyzed, intramolecular aromatic C-H alkylation with unactivated alkyl halides is described. This process is successful with both iodides and bromides, including those with β-hydrogen atoms present. It also tolerates both electron-rich and electron-poor aromatic rings, as well as heteroaromatic substrates. The mild, palladium-catalyzed approach displays compatibility with a diverse range of functional groups, including those which are base- or nucleophile-sensitive. A mechanistic investigation is also presented, suggesting the presence of radical intermediates. III. A Versatile, Palladium-Catalyzed Approach to Alkene-Alkyl Halide Coupling A method for the palladium-catalyzed coupling of alkyl halides with alkenes is presented. Reaction conditions determine whether the end product retains the alkyl halide moiety in an atom-transfer radical cyclization (ATRC) reaction, or if the alkene component is restored, affecting a formal Heck-type transformation. The manifold is capable of performing both transformations with unactivated alkyl bromides and a variety of terminal, di- and tri-substituted alkenes under argon atmosphere. It also enables formation of both 5- and 6-membered rings. A mechanistic investigation of this reaction is presented, which suggests the operation of a catalytic, hybrid organometallic-radical process. 2017-05 2017 Chemistry Organic chemistry Catalysis, Cross-Coupling, Organometallic, Palladium eng Doctor of Philosophy Dissertation University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Graduate School Degree granting institution Chemistry Erik Alexanian Thesis advisor David Nicewicz Thesis advisor Jeffrey Aubé Thesis advisor Alexander Miller Thesis advisor Michel Gagné Thesis advisor text Alexander Venning Creator Department of Chemistry College of Arts and Sciences Palladium-Catalyzed Carbon-Carbon Bond-Forming Reactions with Unactivated Alkyl Electrophiles I. Cross-Coupling Reactions with Alkyl Electrophiles An overview of the application of alkyl electrophiles in cross-coupling reactions is presented, highlighting the importance of this reactivity and challenges associated therein. Recent advances in alkyl cross-coupling are discussed, from both a process development and mechanistic perspective, to describe the current state of the field. Advances in hybrid organometallic-radical reactivity are also considered, with particular focus on its application in alkyl cross-coupling and perspective on mechanistic analysis. II. Palladium-Catalyzed Ring-Forming Aromatic C-H Alkylation A palladium-catalyzed, intramolecular aromatic C-H alkylation with unactivated alkyl halides is described. This process is successful with both iodides and bromides, including those with β-hydrogen atoms present. It also tolerates both electron-rich and electron-poor aromatic rings, as well as heteroaromatic substrates. The mild, palladium-catalyzed approach displays compatibility with a diverse range of functional groups, including those which are base- or nucleophile-sensitive. A mechanistic investigation is also presented, suggesting the presence of radical intermediates. III. A Versatile, Palladium-Catalyzed Approach to Alkene-Alkyl Halide Coupling A method for the palladium-catalyzed coupling of alkyl halides with alkenes is presented. Reaction conditions determine whether the end product retains the alkyl halide moiety in an atom-transfer radical cyclization (ATRC) reaction, or if the alkene component is restored, affecting a formal Heck-type transformation. The manifold is capable of performing both transformations with unactivated alkyl bromides and a variety of terminal, di- and tri-substituted alkenes under argon atmosphere. It also enables formation of both 5- and 6-membered rings. A mechanistic investigation of this reaction is presented, which suggests the operation of a catalytic, hybrid organometallic-radical process. 2017 Chemistry Organic chemistry Catalysis, Cross-Coupling, Organometallic, Palladium eng Doctor of Philosophy Dissertation University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Graduate School Degree granting institution Chemistry Erik Alexanian Thesis advisor David Nicewicz Thesis advisor Jeffrey Aubé Thesis advisor Alexander Miller Thesis advisor Michel Gagné Thesis advisor text 2017-05 Alexander Venning Creator Department of Chemistry College of Arts and Sciences Palladium-Catalyzed Carbon-Carbon Bond-Forming Reactions with Unactivated Alkyl Electrophiles I. Cross-Coupling Reactions with Alkyl Electrophiles An overview of the application of alkyl electrophiles in cross-coupling reactions is presented, highlighting the importance of this reactivity and challenges associated therein. Recent advances in alkyl cross-coupling are discussed, from both a process development and mechanistic perspective, to describe the current state of the field. Advances in hybrid organometallic-radical reactivity are also considered, with particular focus on its application in alkyl cross-coupling and perspective on mechanistic analysis. II. Palladium-Catalyzed Ring-Forming Aromatic C-H Alkylation A palladium-catalyzed, intramolecular aromatic C-H alkylation with unactivated alkyl halides is described. This process is successful with both iodides and bromides, including those with β-hydrogen atoms present. It also tolerates both electron-rich and electron-poor aromatic rings, as well as heteroaromatic substrates. The mild, palladium-catalyzed approach displays compatibility with a diverse range of functional groups, including those which are base- or nucleophile-sensitive. A mechanistic investigation is also presented, suggesting the presence of radical intermediates. III. A Versatile, Palladium-Catalyzed Approach to Alkene-Alkyl Halide Coupling A method for the palladium-catalyzed coupling of alkyl halides with alkenes is presented. Reaction conditions determine whether the end product retains the alkyl halide moiety in an atom-transfer radical cyclization (ATRC) reaction, or if the alkene component is restored, affecting a formal Heck-type transformation. The manifold is capable of performing both transformations with unactivated alkyl bromides and a variety of terminal, di- and tri-substituted alkenes under argon atmosphere. It also enables formation of both 5- and 6-membered rings. A mechanistic investigation of this reaction is presented, which suggests the operation of a catalytic, hybrid organometallic-radical process. 2017 Chemistry Organic chemistry Catalysis, Cross-Coupling, Organometallic, Palladium eng Doctor of Philosophy Dissertation University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Graduate School Degree granting institution Chemistry Erik Alexanian Thesis advisor David Nicewicz Thesis advisor Jeffrey Aubé Thesis advisor Alexander Miller Thesis advisor Michel Gagné Thesis advisor text 2017-05 Alexander Venning Creator Department of Chemistry College of Arts and Sciences Palladium-Catalyzed Carbon-Carbon Bond-Forming Reactions with Unactivated Alkyl Electrophiles I. Cross-Coupling Reactions with Alkyl Electrophiles An overview of the application of alkyl electrophiles in cross-coupling reactions is presented, highlighting the importance of this reactivity and challenges associated therein. Recent advances in alkyl cross-coupling are discussed, from both a process development and mechanistic perspective, to describe the current state of the field. Advances in hybrid organometallic-radical reactivity are also considered, with particular focus on its application in alkyl cross-coupling and perspective on mechanistic analysis. II. Palladium-Catalyzed Ring-Forming Aromatic C-H Alkylation A palladium-catalyzed, intramolecular aromatic C-H alkylation with unactivated alkyl halides is described. This process is successful with both iodides and bromides, including those with β-hydrogen atoms present. It also tolerates both electron-rich and electron-poor aromatic rings, as well as heteroaromatic substrates. The mild, palladium-catalyzed approach displays compatibility with a diverse range of functional groups, including those which are base- or nucleophile-sensitive. A mechanistic investigation is also presented, suggesting the presence of radical intermediates. III. A Versatile, Palladium-Catalyzed Approach to Alkene-Alkyl Halide Coupling A method for the palladium-catalyzed coupling of alkyl halides with alkenes is presented. Reaction conditions determine whether the end product retains the alkyl halide moiety in an atom-transfer radical cyclization (ATRC) reaction, or if the alkene component is restored, affecting a formal Heck-type transformation. The manifold is capable of performing both transformations with unactivated alkyl bromides and a variety of terminal, di- and tri-substituted alkenes under argon atmosphere. It also enables formation of both 5- and 6-membered rings. A mechanistic investigation of this reaction is presented, which suggests the operation of a catalytic, hybrid organometallic-radical process. 2017 Chemistry Organic chemistry Catalysis, Cross-Coupling, Organometallic, Palladium eng Doctor of Philosophy Dissertation University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Graduate School Degree granting institution Chemistry Erik Alexanian Thesis advisor David Nicewicz Thesis advisor Jeffrey Aubé Thesis advisor Alexander Miller Thesis advisor Michel Gagné Thesis advisor text 2017-05 Alexander Venning Creator Department of Chemistry College of Arts and Sciences Palladium-Catalyzed Carbon-Carbon Bond-Forming Reactions with Unactivated Alkyl Electrophiles I. Cross-Coupling Reactions with Alkyl Electrophiles An overview of the application of alkyl electrophiles in cross-coupling reactions is presented, highlighting the importance of this reactivity and challenges associated therein. Recent advances in alkyl cross-coupling are discussed, from both a process development and mechanistic perspective, to describe the current state of the field. Advances in hybrid organometallic-radical reactivity are also considered, with particular focus on its application in alkyl cross-coupling and perspective on mechanistic analysis. II. Palladium-Catalyzed Ring-Forming Aromatic C-H Alkylation A palladium-catalyzed, intramolecular aromatic C-H alkylation with unactivated alkyl halides is described. This process is successful with both iodides and bromides, including those with β-hydrogen atoms present. It also tolerates both electron-rich and electron-poor aromatic rings, as well as heteroaromatic substrates. The mild, palladium-catalyzed approach displays compatibility with a diverse range of functional groups, including those which are base- or nucleophile-sensitive. A mechanistic investigation is also presented, suggesting the presence of radical intermediates. III. A Versatile, Palladium-Catalyzed Approach to Alkene-Alkyl Halide Coupling A method for the palladium-catalyzed coupling of alkyl halides with alkenes is presented. Reaction conditions determine whether the end product retains the alkyl halide moiety in an atom-transfer radical cyclization (ATRC) reaction, or if the alkene component is restored, affecting a formal Heck-type transformation. The manifold is capable of performing both transformations with unactivated alkyl bromides and a variety of terminal, di- and tri-substituted alkenes under argon atmosphere. It also enables formation of both 5- and 6-membered rings. A mechanistic investigation of this reaction is presented, which suggests the operation of a catalytic, hybrid organometallic-radical process. 2017 Chemistry Organic chemistry Catalysis, Cross-Coupling, Organometallic, Palladium eng Doctor of Philosophy Dissertation Chemistry Erik Alexanian Thesis advisor David Nicewicz Thesis advisor Jeffrey Aubé Thesis advisor Alexander Miller Thesis advisor Michel Gagne Thesis advisor text 2017-05 University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Degree granting institution Alexander Venning Creator Department of Chemistry College of Arts and Sciences Palladium-Catalyzed Carbon-Carbon Bond-Forming Reactions with Unactivated Alkyl Electrophiles I. Cross-Coupling Reactions with Alkyl Electrophiles An overview of the application of alkyl electrophiles in cross-coupling reactions is presented, highlighting the importance of this reactivity and challenges associated therein. Recent advances in alkyl cross-coupling are discussed, from both a process development and mechanistic perspective, to describe the current state of the field. Advances in hybrid organometallic-radical reactivity are also considered, with particular focus on its application in alkyl cross-coupling and perspective on mechanistic analysis. II. Palladium-Catalyzed Ring-Forming Aromatic C-H Alkylation A palladium-catalyzed, intramolecular aromatic C-H alkylation with unactivated alkyl halides is described. This process is successful with both iodides and bromides, including those with β-hydrogen atoms present. It also tolerates both electron-rich and electron-poor aromatic rings, as well as heteroaromatic substrates. The mild, palladium-catalyzed approach displays compatibility with a diverse range of functional groups, including those which are base- or nucleophile-sensitive. A mechanistic investigation is also presented, suggesting the presence of radical intermediates. III. A Versatile, Palladium-Catalyzed Approach to Alkene-Alkyl Halide Coupling A method for the palladium-catalyzed coupling of alkyl halides with alkenes is presented. Reaction conditions determine whether the end product retains the alkyl halide moiety in an atom-transfer radical cyclization (ATRC) reaction, or if the alkene component is restored, affecting a formal Heck-type transformation. The manifold is capable of performing both transformations with unactivated alkyl bromides and a variety of terminal, di- and tri-substituted alkenes under argon atmosphere. It also enables formation of both 5- and 6-membered rings. A mechanistic investigation of this reaction is presented, which suggests the operation of a catalytic, hybrid organometallic-radical process. 2017 Chemistry Organic chemistry Catalysis; Cross-Coupling; Organometallic; Palladium eng Doctor of Philosophy Dissertation Chemistry Erik Alexanian Thesis advisor David Nicewicz Thesis advisor Jeffrey Aubé Thesis advisor Alexander Miller Thesis advisor Michel Gagne Thesis advisor text 2017-05 University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Degree granting institution Alexander Venning Creator Department of Chemistry College of Arts and Sciences Palladium-Catalyzed Carbon-Carbon Bond-Forming Reactions with Unactivated Alkyl Electrophiles I. Cross-Coupling Reactions with Alkyl Electrophiles An overview of the application of alkyl electrophiles in cross-coupling reactions is presented, highlighting the importance of this reactivity and challenges associated therein. Recent advances in alkyl cross-coupling are discussed, from both a process development and mechanistic perspective, to describe the current state of the field. Advances in hybrid organometallic-radical reactivity are also considered, with particular focus on its application in alkyl cross-coupling and perspective on mechanistic analysis. II. Palladium-Catalyzed Ring-Forming Aromatic C-H Alkylation A palladium-catalyzed, intramolecular aromatic C-H alkylation with unactivated alkyl halides is described. This process is successful with both iodides and bromides, including those with β-hydrogen atoms present. It also tolerates both electron-rich and electron-poor aromatic rings, as well as heteroaromatic substrates. The mild, palladium-catalyzed approach displays compatibility with a diverse range of functional groups, including those which are base- or nucleophile-sensitive. A mechanistic investigation is also presented, suggesting the presence of radical intermediates. III. A Versatile, Palladium-Catalyzed Approach to Alkene-Alkyl Halide Coupling A method for the palladium-catalyzed coupling of alkyl halides with alkenes is presented. Reaction conditions determine whether the end product retains the alkyl halide moiety in an atom-transfer radical cyclization (ATRC) reaction, or if the alkene component is restored, affecting a formal Heck-type transformation. The manifold is capable of performing both transformations with unactivated alkyl bromides and a variety of terminal, di- and tri-substituted alkenes under argon atmosphere. It also enables formation of both 5- and 6-membered rings. A mechanistic investigation of this reaction is presented, which suggests the operation of a catalytic, hybrid organometallic-radical process. 2017 Chemistry Organic chemistry Catalysis, Cross-Coupling, Organometallic, Palladium eng Doctor of Philosophy Dissertation University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Graduate School Degree granting institution Chemistry Erik Alexanian Thesis advisor David Nicewicz Thesis advisor Jeffrey Aubé Thesis advisor Alexander Miller Thesis advisor Michel Gagne Thesis advisor text 2017-05 Alexander Venning Creator Department of Chemistry College of Arts and Sciences Palladium-Catalyzed Carbon-Carbon Bond-Forming Reactions with Unactivated Alkyl Electrophiles I. Cross-Coupling Reactions with Alkyl Electrophiles An overview of the application of alkyl electrophiles in cross-coupling reactions is presented, highlighting the importance of this reactivity and challenges associated therein. Recent advances in alkyl cross-coupling are discussed, from both a process development and mechanistic perspective, to describe the current state of the field. Advances in hybrid organometallic-radical reactivity are also considered, with particular focus on its application in alkyl cross-coupling and perspective on mechanistic analysis. II. Palladium-Catalyzed Ring-Forming Aromatic C-H Alkylation A palladium-catalyzed, intramolecular aromatic C-H alkylation with unactivated alkyl halides is described. This process is successful with both iodides and bromides, including those with β-hydrogen atoms present. It also tolerates both electron-rich and electron-poor aromatic rings, as well as heteroaromatic substrates. The mild, palladium-catalyzed approach displays compatibility with a diverse range of functional groups, including those which are base- or nucleophile-sensitive. A mechanistic investigation is also presented, suggesting the presence of radical intermediates. III. A Versatile, Palladium-Catalyzed Approach to Alkene-Alkyl Halide Coupling A method for the palladium-catalyzed coupling of alkyl halides with alkenes is presented. Reaction conditions determine whether the end product retains the alkyl halide moiety in an atom-transfer radical cyclization (ATRC) reaction, or if the alkene component is restored, affecting a formal Heck-type transformation. The manifold is capable of performing both transformations with unactivated alkyl bromides and a variety of terminal, di- and tri-substituted alkenes under argon atmosphere. It also enables formation of both 5- and 6-membered rings. A mechanistic investigation of this reaction is presented, which suggests the operation of a catalytic, hybrid organometallic-radical process. 2017 Chemistry Organic chemistry Catalysis; Cross-Coupling; Organometallic; Palladium eng Doctor of Philosophy Dissertation University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Graduate School Degree granting institution Erik Alexanian Thesis advisor David Nicewicz Thesis advisor Jeffrey Aubé Thesis advisor Alexander Miller Thesis advisor Michel Gagne Thesis advisor text 2017-05 Venning_unc_0153D_16925.pdf uuid:2d8a3917-a303-4420-af17-8cf9e3faefcb proquest 2017-04-17T22:05:14Z 2019-07-06T00:00:00 application/pdf 29910109 yes