Reducing the need for harvesting autologous bone is a major goal of current research. A recently developed collagen/dextran hygrogel scaffold (E-matrixTM) may offer osteoinductive advantages as a biologic polymer for bone repair. This scaffold, by mimicking embryonic extracellular matrix, could promote osteogenesis in the absence of osseoinductive agents. 8.9mm craniotomy defects were created in the parietal bone of 23 Sprague-Dawley rats. In a randomized manner, implants (Collagen only, Collagen/E matrix, Collagen/BMP) were placed onto the defect. Healing was permitted for 2, 4 or 6 weeks. At these timelines BMP treated defects showed good bone repair (26.20%, 42.60% and 22.12% bone fill, respectively). EmatrixTM defects showed equal bone repair at 4 and 6 weeks (40.21 and 22.12% respectively), but reduced bone at 2 weeks (5.08%). Bone repair was incomplete in Collage and saline treated defects. EmatrixTM supported bone repair of critical sized defects. The mechanism of action requires additional investigation.