Throughout Histories 1-3, Tacitus employs a motif of decapitation that functions as a metaphor for the anarchy of the so-called Year of the Four Emperors. The historian emphasizes certain beheadings common to the parallel tradition, and includes others that are unique to the Histories. Tacitus extends this motif to embrace metaphorical beheadings, the foremost of which is the destruction of the Capitolium, which marks the terrible climax of the first three books. Tacitus effectively abandons the motif in Histories 4 and focuses instead on Vespasian's good leadership and Rome's restoration. I conclude that Tacitus' use of this motif contributes to his negative analysis of Roman leadership in 69 CE.