Objective; To investigate osteogenic and osteoinductive gene expression in cells interacting with modified titanium surfaces in-vitro and an in-vivo. Materials and Methods; Nano-topography was assessed by SEM. hMSC were plated onto cpTi disks (Nano: T1: Acid edged, oxidized; OS: TiO2 fluoride-modified. Micro: T2: Acid etched). RT-PCR was used to assess a wide array of osteoblast specific gene expression (Day 3, 7, 14, 28). Implants were placed in rat tibias (T1, T2, OS and TiOBlast - TiO2 blasted, micro), following harvesting 1, 3 and 7 days after placement. mRNA levels of RUNX-2, ALP and OSX were measured with RT-PCR. Results; In both cell culture and in-vivo experiments, osteoblastic differentiation occurred on all surfaces but to a greater extent on T1 and OS. Conclusions; Presence of nano-features on moderately rough cpTi is associated with marked osteoinduction of adherent hMSC and suggested positive modulation of bone response into the osteogenic pathway in-vivo.