The current study analyzed data from the Even Start Classroom Literacy Interventions and Outcomes Study (CLIO) to examine the linkages between parent responsiveness, child social competence, and child emergent literacy skills and to determine whether the proposed mediated model is moderated by cultural group membership. The sample of 1140 low-income families included 25% White, 11% Black, 15% English-Speaking Hispanic, and 49% Spanish-Speaking Hispanic parent-child dyads. Path analysis and nested model fit analysis confirmed cross-cultural variation in the proposed mediated model based on ethnicity and home language. With the exception of Spanish-Speaking Hispanic families, there was limited evidence that child social competence mediated the relation between parent responsiveness and child emergent literacy. Support for the predictive role of parent responsiveness on child social competence was found only within the Hispanic groups, regardless of home language status. Study findings did, however, indicate consistent support for the predictive role of parent responsiveness and child social competence on the development of child emergent literacy skills across all cultural groups. Cultural variations were also found in the linkages between study covariates and child outcomes, including child age and gender, maternal education, household income, family mobility, and number of adults in household.