Teen pregnancy in the Waorani community is related to traditional marriage patterns. Nevertheless, it is currently influenced by the context of oil exploitation and its correlation with development and modernity. Before the colonization of their territory and through the present day, some women under 19 years of age began to have children, within socially recognized marriages arranged by older people. Teen pregnancy in the community currently takes place both within and outside of marriage. Oil extraction and development has led to a number of social transformations that affect gender roles, produce changes in forms of being an adult, and the experience of teen pregnancy, through three ways: increased wage labor; insertion into formal education; modernization and development of the community. Oil extraction, which is connected with the demands of the world economic system, is not only shaping the national Ecuadorian economy, but also impacting local communities in significant ways, with effects on intimate relationships and marriage, gender roles, women's bodies, and cultural conceptions of adolescence, adulthood, and fertility.