The first part of this thesis details a randomized controlled study in which osteotomies were prepared in the tibia of 15 rats using either 1st or 2nd Generation Piezotome® ultrasonic surgical units, or high speed rotary instrumentation. Sham surgeries were performed as controls. Real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was completed, highlighting differential gene expression patterns at 1 week post-surgery while immunohistochemistry staining for matrix metalloproteinase 2, matrix metalloproteinase 8, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha; compared the localization of gene expression at 1 and 3 weeks post-surgery. The second part details a second randomized control study in which osteotomies were prepared in the tibia of 9 rats using the same instrumentation methods. Three weeks post-surgery, micro-computer tomography was completed to evaluate bone mineral density and percentage of bone fill within the osteotomy defects and peripheral bone. Qualitative histological characterization of the tissues was also completed at 3 weeks.