Vital pulp therapy (VPT) remains a treatment option for cariously exposed teeth that reach the dental pulp. To our knowledge no study has examined whether perioperative pain predicts the outcome of VPT. The aim of this study is to examine the between perioperative pain and the progression of pulpal disease into a more inflamed or necrotic state. Direct pulp caps or partial pulpotomies using MTA were performed on permanent teeth with carious pulpal exposures. Patients were contacted at 24 hours, one week and three months following treatment and data was collected on pain experienced and analgesic intake using a standardized questionnaire. At six and 12 months after treatment an in-person clinical exam was performed on each subject which included standard vitality tests along with exposure of a periapical radiograph. Success was defined as an asymptomatic, functional tooth that does not present with any clinical or radiographic pathology and has not had previous root canal treatment. Statistical analysis was performed using logistic regression. Results from this study support a correlation between perioperative pain at 3 months and the outcome of VPT.