In this study, we examined the histologic healing associated with initial osseous healing comparing trabecular metal vs. standard titanium in healthy and osteopenia/osteoporosis subjects. We proposed to add to this body of knowledge in two major ways. First, we identified the temporal differences in cellular recruitment and activation during early healing and early osteogenesis, and the bone to implant contact (BIC). This was done by placing test cylinders (approx. 2.9-3 x 5 mm) using standard titanium or trabecular metal. Both total BIC and BIC percentage was calculated for both trabecular and titanium cylinders harvested 4 weeks after placement. Secondly, we recognized that osseous healing can vary considerably in the face of chronic health problems including osteopenia/osteoporosis. This chronic condition is known to impair bone repair and osseous regeneration. The use of trabecular metal may have the strategic advantage of demonstrating superior osseous healing in these compromised individuals as compared to titanium. This project was designed to examine the differences in the histologic BIC, not only comparing trabecular metal to titanium, but also to examine these differences in subjects with this osseous metabolic compromising condition.