This study evaluated a set of interventions used by the North Carolina Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program to eliminate the elevated blood lead levels (BLLs) of 36 children. Abatement, education, housekeeping techniques, and relocation to lead-free housing were analyzed in terms of their effectiveness in significantly reducing BLLs. The study also assessed the attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors of the population at risk for lead poisoning. Health records and a questionnaire given to the families provided the data for the study. Education provided by public health nurses was successful in improving the mothers' knowledge about lead poisoning, however, the vast majority of mothers were unaware of lead poisoning prior to their children's exposure. Although only four families were able to abate, all these children had significantly lower BLLs six to twelve months later. The majority of those children who used housekeeping techniques or relocation as an intervention also significantly reduced their BLLs. Based on answers to the questionnaire, most mothers expressed real concern for their children's situation, trust for the medical profession's ability to provide care, and a willingness to cooperate with the nurses and the health department.