Abstract Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal-dystrophy (APECED) is a rare primary immunodeficiency disorder typically caused by homozygous AIRE gene mutation. It is characterized by the association of multiple autoimmune diseases, with a classical triad including chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, hypoparathyroidism and adrenocortical failure. Its clinical spectrum has significantly enlarged in the last years with the apparence of new entities. One of these novel manifestations is the chronic inflammatory demyelinating polineuropathy (CIDP), that is characterized by involvement of peripheral nervous system, with nerve demyelination, progressive muscular weakness of both arms and legs and sensory loss. The identification of myelin protein zero as an important autoantigen (Ag) in CIDP may suggest the development of Ag-based therapies, such as Ag-specific DNA vaccination or infusion of Ag-coupled cells.