OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine active periodontal disease status in HIV and to determine the impact of periodontal disease resolution on HIV status. METHODS: In this longitudinal cohort study, 73 HIV-positive subjects received comprehensive dental care. AAP, CDC/AAP, and BGI case definitions determined periodontal classification. Likelihood and frequency of moderate/severe periodontal disease were assessed based on demographic variables. The influence of periodontal intervention was assessed at baseline, 12, and 24 months. IL-6 was measured in a subset of subjects. RESULTS: Of the periodontal classifications, BGI demonstrated the highest percentage category improvement with the intervention (>50%). Moderate/severe periodontitis was positively associated HIV regardless of race, smoking status, gender, income level, and age, and was associated with increased IL-6. At baseline, the majority of subjects had severe periodontal disease regardless of ART status. Subjects with suppressed viral load at baseline demonstrated a significant improvement in BGI classification (P = 0.026), increased CD4 counts (P = 0.027), and decreased IL-6 levels (P = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Periodontal inflammation was prevalent regardless of ART status. In virologically suppressed subjects, the intervention decreased periodontitis with a concomitant IL-6 decrease and CD4 increase. These findings suggest a relationship between periodontal inflammation, oral microbial translocation, and HIV status.