Objectives: To compare handheld and wall-mounted x-ray sources during Full Mouth Examination (FMX). Methods: One operator simulated exposure of 10 FMX on a RANDO phantom for each of seven studies: three handheld and four wall-mounted. Optical Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) dosimetry was utilized to record dose. Effective dose was calculated using 2007 International Commission on Radiologic Protection (ICRP) tissue weights. Differences due to technique were evaluated using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). A cohort of 75 dental students exposed one FMX utilizing each device. Observers were calibrated and blinded to assess technique errors and Line Pair (LP) resolution. Results: Mean FMX dose was significantly less for handheld 36μSv than for wall-mounted devices 98μSv (p=0.0217). Mean operator exposures were indistinguishable from ambient background levels (<2 μGy/study). Mean total technique error was not different between devices (p = 0.29). Mean LP resolution was significantly higher for the handheld device, (p < 0.01). Conclusion: Operator, patient dose, and mean sum of total errors were not different. LP resolution was significantly higher for the handheld device during FMX simulation.