Objective: To test whether periodontal intervention in dialysis patients with periodontal disease will result in improvement of inflammatory and metabolic markers compared to no treatment. Methods: Fifty-one dialysis patients with moderate to severe periodontal disease were recruited from six dialysis units. Twenty-five subjects were randomized to a periodontal treatment arm and twenty-six subjects were randomized to a control arm. Clinical periodontal parameters and serum were collected at baseline, 3 months and 6 months. Serum was analyzed for interleukin-6 and serum albumin. Results: Compared to untreated control, periodontal therapy was associated with a statistically significant improvement in clinical parameters of periodontal disease at 3 months, but not at 6 months and was not associated with any difference in serum interleukin-6 or serum albumin. Conclusion: Periodontal therapy was associated with improved clinical measures of periodontal disease, but not with improved interleukin-6 or serum albumin in this population. Diabetic status, plaque control and obesity should be tightly controlled in future studies of periodontal therapy in this population.