Scholars have been divided over how to interpret the relationship between Palestinian Jews and the Roman Empire during the Herodian period (40 BCE - 70 CE). This thesis attempts to understand this relationship through a model of Romanization based on theories of identity negotiation. It uses the unit of the household and its objects to examine the range of identity displays in which the Jews of Herodian Palestine participated, and it examines this display vernacular to see how it compares to that of other sites and how it changes over time. For its sample, this thesis examines the sites of Jerusalem (the Upper City) and Qumran. It finds that, although these sites show a range of identities and experiences under Empire, the context of the Roman Empire affected both by changing the discourse of identity expression.